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    影響雞群均勻度的幾大因素
     
    作者:admin 瀏覽 :1150 日期:2016-11-4

    影響雞群均勻度的幾大因素

    山西瑞象•福瑞沃農大生物技術部

    雞群均勻度是指雞群健康生長發育的一致性程度,具體包括體態(骨架)、體重、性成熟三個方面。體態均勻度在育雛早期就基本定型,它決定著體重均勻度。體重均勻可通過分群、調群、飼料調控來提高,它又決定著性成熟的一致性即性成熟均勻度。性成熟在18周前基本形成。性成熟均勻度直接影響著雞蛋產量的高低。這三方面關系十分密切,共同構成完整的均勻度概念。導致種雞群均勻度降低的因素較多較復雜,在生產實踐中經常遇到的主要有下列一些因素。

    ■ 1 品種或品系不純

    這是先天性的,只有在育種方面加強提純才能改變。國外的一些高度專門化品種或品系其均勻度往往較高,而國內的一些黃土雞因其品種或品系內變異大而均勻度低一些。

    ■ 2 雛雞體重差異

    雛雞剛到場時個體間體重差別,這主要是由入孵種蛋大小不一造成的,可將體重不同的雛雞分別進行育雛。

    ■ 3 雛雞早期脫水

    雛雞體重的70%以上是水,早期脫水的原因主要是孵化廠出雛操作不當、飲水過遲或雛雞天氣炎熱時長途運輸。這會減輕其早期體重,1~2天內就會看到體重均勻度下降。一般在最初4~5小時內提供的飲水器數量應為通常數量的1.5~2倍,之后再供飼料。

    ■ 4 育雛溫度不當

    雛雞沒有羽毛,只有絨毛,不能控制自身的體溫,很易受寒,從而擁擠打堆甚至拉稀而不吃食,其體重就會下降,造成早期體重均勻度下降。

    ■ 5 舍內通風不良

    育雛舍內的廢氣要及時排出,同時引進足量的新鮮空氣,否則其呼吸道會受到嚴重損傷,容易受到呼吸道感染。雛雞對空氣的敏感程度不一,較敏感的雞會受到較嚴重的損害。因此,必須及時通風換氣,但要處理好與保溫的關系。

    ■ 6 選擇性采食

    雛雞本性喜愛啄食大而可口的飼料顆粒。這種選擇性采食會導致雛雞得到的營養不平衡,從而導致雞群均勻度下降。因此,不能給雛雞飼喂碎粒玉米,這會導致選擇性采食。

    ■ 7 飲水、飼料不足

    這會導致雞飲水、吃料不均勻。尤其是水,雞群內若有任何爭搶飲水的現象,則其均勻度就會下降,必須保證所有的雞隨時能得到充足而清潔的水,天氣炎熱時更是如此。

    ■ 8 密度過大

    擁擠飼養是一種目光短淺的做法。這會造成雛雞相互搶奪生活空間、爭搶料槽和飲水器、減少每只雛雞所能獲得的新鮮空氣,從而較弱的雛雞就會受害。擁擠還造成雛雞應激,其腸道中致病性大腸桿菌就會增多,導致復雜的疾病,如慢性呼吸道病等。這些均會影響雞群均勻度。

    ■ 9 斷喙一致性差

    斷喙不一致造成雛雞飲水、采食速度不一,特別在種雞限飼后會大大降低均勻度。必須加強對斷喙人員操作規范的統一,并對斷喙不好的適當進行修剪。

    ■ 10 分群、調群不及時

    分、調群是控制均勻度的有效手段。必須根據抽測的均勻度情況確定是否分群,一般育雛期分一次,育成期分1-2次,兩次分群間隔至少為4周才有效。調群是分群的輔助手段,是一項日常工作,調群做得好可減少分群次數。

    ■ 11 喂料不均勻

    這在人工喂料的籠養雞群中常常發生,使雞采食量產生差異,對限料的種雞群更是如此。喂料的同時應當將料槽中的料拉勻,使雞采食量均勻一致。

    ■ 12 疾病

    任何疾病均會嚴重影響雞群均勻度。尤其是呼吸道感染可從運輸期間即開始危害雛雞,在同一雞場飼養不同日齡的雞群,雞得病的機會就會大大增加。即使雞群中只有20%發病,群內其它雞仍會受到亞臨床疾病的危害。防重于治,只要實行全進全出制、采取生物安全措施、良好的營養和通風,則大多數疾病都能得到預防。

     

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