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    雞群秋季腹瀉與夏季拉稀不同
     
    作者:admin 瀏覽 :910 日期:2016-11-2

                    雞群秋季腹瀉與夏季拉稀不同

        從漫漫炎夏走到瑟瑟深秋,雞舍的內外環境發生了很大的變化,氣溫降低,寒風漸起,使得雞生產面臨著十分嚴峻的考驗。不少雞場雞群會發生秋季腹瀉,而秋季腹瀉不同于夏季水樣腹瀉,比較來說,秋季腹瀉糞便的過料少,雜色糞多;原因也比夏季的復雜,防治也更容易出現失誤。

     

      關于秋季腹瀉的原因有輪狀病毒說,有腺病毒說,有溫度不均說,有飼料質量說,有霍亂說,有腸毒說,也有脾胃不和說。 具體都是哪些原因引起的,筆者做了如下匯總:

     

       一、夏季腹瀉的延續或繼發

     

      在夏季,雞的腹瀉最常見的原因是飲水過多,這在開放和半開放雞舍及簡易雞舍條件下,主要是由于炎熱,雞群為了抗御熱應激而大量飲水再通過水瀉以圖機體散熱,這種水瀉屬于腸道功能一時的紊亂;還有一種是標準化雞舍的夏季水簾與風機開閉不協調,造成風冷效應過量,屬于腸道的熱傷風(所謂恒溫是不可靠的)。這類的腹瀉通常不算重癥病且呈明顯的季節性,只要不形成頑固性腸炎,是可以調治或隨著氣溫的逐漸降低而自愈的。

     

      但這類腹瀉造成腸粘膜的嚴重脫落會持續一段時間,隨著晝夜溫差加大,風機、水簾開啟減少,外界補入的空氣濕度溫度的變化,雞群機體的應激再次起伏,消化道的適應力再度失調,本已薄弱的腸道一時難以恢復常態功能。于是,腹瀉延長或再度加劇。這類腹瀉所導致的腸道的持續紊亂,會使得腸道自身合成某些維生素如VCVDVB的功能減弱或停止;這樣自身合成不足,外來的補充吸收又不充分,本以稀缺的某些維生素成份更加缺乏,進而使機體抗應激、抗病力更趨下降,隨之而來的就是與病毒細菌霉菌寄生蟲有關的感染增多,呈明顯的病理腹瀉。

     

       二、用藥不對路

     

      本來是菌群失調的,卻大劑量用抗菌素或止瀉藥;或反之,確實是患病了卻存僥幸心理,以為天氣轉涼后就會好轉,以致延誤病情。有的養殖戶聽信以人用鞣酸蛋白或飼料中摻少量高粱來止瀉,而不問腹瀉的主要原因致使病毒病加重或轉化為頑固性腹瀉就是例證。

     

       三、老經驗成禍水

     

      養雞人容易犯經驗主義的錯誤,以前成功的做法就會被當成一成不變的金科玉律。事實上,養殖業的情況是在不斷變化的,無論開放式、半開放式、密閉式雞舍都不會是世外桃源。秋季晝夜溫差加大,晴熱干燥和陰雨連綿時的陰濕交替出現,是疫病逐漸高發的季節,蛋雞舍的溫度管理就不容易掌握了。

     

      如,雞毒霉形體可長期存留于雞的體內而不發病,當氣溫、通風有大的變化時,特別是低溫高濕環境中通風不良,這種致病源就會大量繁殖引起發病。又如禽霍亂,其致病源也是在環境中大量存在的,病愈后的康復雞和無病史雞均是帶菌群體,遇到氣溫聚變、陰雨連綿、雞舍低溫潮濕都會誘發本病。在深秋季節最易發生。而且此病又是開產后更易高發。

     

       在這樣的外部大環境中的局部管理,每年情況都不一樣,由于忽冷忽熱,忽干忽濕,雞群不易適應,往往是與溫度濕度有關的疾病年復一年的頻發,也可以說是呼吸道病與腸道病交替不斷,人們總是感到對這一時段的雞舍溫度把控不好,防不勝防。

     

      四、脾胃不和

     

      這是重中之重。許多不明原因的秋季腹瀉是機體消化道受損或失衡所致,而這種受損或失衡并不是由病原微生物致病的,這也是秋季腹瀉往往用藥很多卻難以治愈的重要原因。

     

      按照中醫理論,這種腹瀉是機體臟器中的脾和胃的配合出了問題。脾胃不和是指本來搭配協調的二者出現了對食物運化的異常,一般正常規律是脾升胃降,脾把食物消化后的精華向上傳遞,胃向下傳遞消化后的食物殘渣。

     

      中醫講:“由于脾胃受納、運化功能失常,升降失調,脾氣不升反而下陷,則見泄瀉。” 又據《明醫指掌》:“脾不和,則食不化;胃不和,則不思食。脾胃不和則不思而且不化。或吐,或瀉”

     

      依筆者的理解,高溫高濕環境會抑制胃脾的功能,還會造成脾胃外感寒邪或為熱邪所侵,這樣,夏季過后,受過侵害的脾胃沒能恢復過來,從中醫理論講,管運化的脾和管收藏的胃運作步調不一致了,就出現不和了。脾胃之所以出現這種不和,還與經夏以后的雞群體質下降密切相關;也與入秋以后外界(包括密閉式雞舍)環境的氣溫、濕度、溫差的變化密切相關,以下降的體質來適應變化的環境,機體各個臟器(尤其脾胃)一時不能不走樣的照常協作運化了,腹瀉就在所難免。

     

      外界變化是客觀的外在的,而機體臟器對外界的適應是統一的內在的,這里機體的運行平衡是最主要的,機體健康,就能抗住外界變化的侵襲,機體羸弱,再好的環境也不保萬無一失。

     

      在針對秋季腹瀉的防治中,有兩點要注重,一是可以應用微生態制劑及時充足的調理腸道,促進有益菌在腸道優勢定植,確保腸道酸堿平衡和腸粘膜的完整性;二是應用中草藥來調理脾胃,使得脾和胃都強健并且能協調運化;同時再補充蛋白、能量、多種維生素和礦物質,是能夠糾正腹瀉的。尤其是,要靠中草藥來調理脾胃的不和,以脾胃經過調理的的相對平衡來保障消化道的正常健康,抑制或減緩秋季腹瀉的發生。

     

      通常雞的秋季腹瀉不是單一的腸道炎癥,是多種因素綜合結果,確認主要的,兼顧次要的,要立足于秋防,早用中草藥調理,還要靠人的責任心和對新情況的及時應對來防治。

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